# Slab Load Calculation

These loads shall be applicable for the design of buildings. An important thing to keep in mind is the construction live loads that were used for the development of the load tables. The following examples illustrate how rigid pavement responses to different stresses are calculated. This calculator is to be used as an estimating tool ONLY. Calculator works for rectangular beams, positive-moment and negative-moment T-beams, and 1-way slabs, as shown in the sections below:. , edge beam dimensions = 14 in. In addition to curling, environmental temperatures will cause PCC slabs to expand (when hot) and contract (when cool), which causes joint movement. Slab – Punching Shear (available in Reinforced Concrete FREE) – allows to calculate load barring capability of slab for punching shear, additionally in Reinforced Concrete PRO you may choose column section Rectangular / Circular and calculate Column Drop for slab. bags: Number of 80 lb. To obtain a wall or ceiling assembly R-value you must add the r-values of the individual components together. Live Load = 2. A typical wood-frame floor covered with carpet or vinyl flooring has a dead load of about 8 pounds per square foot; if there's wall-board covered ceiling suspended from the underside of that floor, the dead load increases to about 10 pounds per square foot. 5 kW and more than 0. This guide covers the design of slabs-on-ground for loads from material stored directly on the slab, storage rack loads, and static and dynamic loads associated with equipment and vehicles. Slab resting on walls or sufficiently deep and rigid beams on all sides. The subsequent three steps calculate the maximum actual load per web due to dead and construction loads. 001* A t = 1. You can either generate a report for a chosen slab, selected slabs or all slabs, dependant upon your selection method. Case 3: Wheel load at an edge of a slab, but removed from the corner. New Construction on an oversized corner lot, with a rear load garage! This home features 3cm slab granite counters, wood flooring, stainless steel gas. The calculation is tricky as the process now becomes non-linear. 1 Introduction 18. Estimate the cost of materials if you know the price per yard. Three types of load are considered while designing slab: 1. for the slab. 2 DEAD LOAD CALCULATION Calculate the dead load of the bridge superstructure components for the controlling interior girder. Any loads given by the Project Engineer have been factored using the BS8110 load factors The concrete slab is not constructed using lightweight aggregate IMPORTANT: Make sure that loads given are only the slab loads and do not include the columns / loaded areas above. In this paper, the optimum design of reinforced concrete waffle slabs is so ught using the simple genetic algorithm. The stair slab may span into landings which span at right angles to the stairs as in figure 8. 25 square feet (2 ½ x 2 ½ ft) is a load of 320 PSF. The losses are from the edges of the slab and insulation on these edges will significantly reduce the heat losses. His analysis suggested that the current slab design (1914) underestimated the moments by 30 to 50%. • self-weight of the beam • concrete slab • imposed load The beam is a 203SFB100 profile in bending about the strong axis. The detailed steel structure analysis is presented in the calculation part. Calculate the yards of concrete or how many pre-mixed bags of concrete are needed to pour a slab, patio, footing, column, or post fill-project, including circular slabs and patios. Calculate the volume of concrete require in liquid state (Slab pour) to fill a concrete slab, concrete wall or concrete structure based on the dimensions of the void to be filled with concrete. School of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, Fujian, China;. road construction estimating EXCEL spreadsheet. Exceptional 3-level family home newly rebuilt from ground up. (all yields are approximate and do not allow for uneven substrate, waste, etc. 640 k/ft (3. Designing with Floor Beam Span Tables Part 3 of Residential Structural Design. Re: weight of concrete slab I suppose it depends on how much rebar is in it and other things, but I'd say around 2 US tons (using 150 lb/ft³ for the density). Disclaimer: This calculator is not intended to be used for the design of actual structures. The original theory and equations by H. Codes differ on the additional thickness required, but it is often the thickness of the footings. Estimate the cost of materials if you know the price per yard. Truck Loads consist of P1, P2 and P3 axle loads, and wllu uniform load per lane. Video Location Timestamp 20:38; Rare drop from Chaos Eaters in Lost Izalith (0. Other loads, such as loads on the roof transferred through dual pur-pose rack systems are also covered. V = live load = 2 KN/m2. How to calculate load coming on Column, Beam, Wall. You do not have to calculate the equivalent load manually and apply them to the beams. ACI design factors for calculating shear and moment in slab Limitation. predict and calculate. So following the above discussion, we will denote it as w LL,data , and write: Eq. $3,395,000 • 4-beds • 4-baths. The patented Aardwolf Slab Lifter is an accessory for lifting and moving slab-form loads. NOTE: it is important to check local building codes for construction requirements in your area. This analysis includes : - the classification of the cross-section, - the calculation of bending resistance, - the calculation of shear resistance,. It is composed. Example: Footer Settings - 16" diameter 6" depth No post size Bottom Cookie - 16" diameter 12" depth 6x6 post size. Wind load calculation (as per IS-875(Part-3)-1987): For low rise building up to 4-5 stories, the wind load is not critical as the moment of resistance provided by the continuity of the floor system to column connection and walls provided between columns are enough to resist the effect of these forces. The vertical loads are the dead and live load. With some limitations, reinforcement for slabs can be sized using the Subgrade Drag Theory in order to increase the spacing of control or construction joints. A 10 per cent tax will be charged on income between Rs 5 and 7. The above equation assumes that the load acting on the slab is unique and no other nearby loads are affecting the calculation. The original theory and equations by H. ACI 318 02 & 05. road construction estimating EXCEL spreadsheet. Enter the depth, width, and length to calculate the amount of cubic yards needed for your concrete slab. Slabs Slab on Grade Floors --- Heat loss from slab on grade floors is primarily dependent on the length of the perimeter and not the area of the floor. Codes differ on the additional thickness required, but it is often the thickness of the footings. 3 d LL 3 – Calculate the long-term creep deflection of the structure due to sustained dead load and sustained. Wind Load Analysis (AS1170. Hence slab load = 6. LL lane = distributed lane load = 0. This high loading assumes that the area around the concentrated load is unloaded. If the slab is propped, all of the loads have to be resisted by the composite section. Use a 9,000 lb. Calculate the yards of concrete or how many pre-mixed bags of concrete are needed to pour a slab, patio, footing, column, or post fill-project, including circular slabs and patios. Asish Seeboo 4 Step 2: Live Load calculations The live load might not be given in calculations. This option also allows the generation of a calculation model for overlapped slabs to directly lower the loads to the foundations. A slab is structural element whose thickness is small compared to its own length and width. The article presents detailed results of the experiment made and advanced numerical modelling based on nonlinear analysis and application of fracture-plastic model. 05 for every 1,000 psi above 4,000 psi. Please Enter Length In Foot. 10 years ago - 7 months left to answer. Formworks are structures to used to support and hold fresh concrete in place in order to obtain the desired shape prior to setting, curing, and hardening. Under the announced income tax regime, taxpayers will. Load Transfer From : Roof > Slabs > Beam > Column > Floor > Foundation 2 types of loads : Imposed Load & Dead Load Imposed Load (IL): Furnitures; Human; Any Temporary Loads. Loads and Load Combinations: The self weight of all the members is also considered for analysis. In this example, a 3,000-pound vehicle accelerates from zero to 60 mph in 7. D SV NAGARJUNA REDDY 2 Years ago. CA Post Loads and Concentrated Loads Concrete bearing and shear stresses for CUPOLEX® slabs are computed using Design Methods to see whether the stresses are within allowable CUPOLEX® concrete slabs may be great enough that alternative designs should be. Calculation of rate of DA per slab (Shri Sahni has revised his earlier DR calculation details as below. 21 Alex Fraser Bridge Location: Annacis, British Columbia, Canada (Fraser River) Construction duration: 1983-1986 Main span: steel deck/reinforced concrete slab; 465 m (1540 ft); Total Length 930 m. 4 of ACI 318M-14. The Calculation. The article explains right from the basics of load distribution over beams and moves into the core of the subject as it finally unfolds all the expressions required for the calculations of beam loads. Click the button to calculate the volume of concrete and man-hours (not including mixing) needed for this job. (1) Frame analysis. The research comprises experiments and calculations of weakened slabs, additionally reinforced and strengthened with CFRP (Carbon Fibres Reinforced Polymers). Brace Anchoring Limit State The WLL of the specified base support for the Brace must be sufficient to withstand the factored load on the Brace. This consists of precast beams and slab panels. "Rvalue" here is the effective R value per foot of perimeter. An interior load condition is assumed for flexural analysis. DEFLECTIONS. Suppose we have a covered area is 200o square feet and over there we need to construct the R. One way slab is normally designed for gravity load only. The App can determine the maximum pouring rate for the PERI wall formwork systems TRIO, MAXIMO and DOMINO depending on the selected pouring height and deformation. Note that, the vertex angle of the triangular slabs is from 30 degree to 90 degree. Slab Thickness (mm): The use of these calculations confirms acceptance of these terms by their user. This calculator determines the size of each tributary area of your deck. Enter chart with slab stress = 16. The use of this calculator depends on the maximum length you can get your bars. New Mexico does have frost and thus a frost line. Downloading worked solutions from our Repository gives you a head start in solving technical problems. (Method 1), the façade should transfer its loads to the slab through direct bearing. The deck slab reinforcement given by the empirical method is a value which is dependent neither on the girder/web spacing nor on the applied dead and live load. It is very rarely used today for large buildings, but smaller residential-scale structures are being built. Loads and Load Combinations: The self weight of all the members is also considered for analysis. ( actual program is available in super civil cd) member designation: span of member [ m ] width of web [ mm ] depth [ mm ] clear cover to reinforcement. Load capacities of simply supported concrete slabs: Imposed loads varies from approximately 1. Various type of load applied by slab over column. The dead load includes own weight of the slab in. 230 mm x 450 mm excluding slab. ACI design factors for calculating shear and moment in slab Limitation. BubbleDeck is a true biaxial slab and behaves like a solib slab, both in aelastic and plastic modes. Sponsored Links. The "House Base Area" is the area of land that the house covers, and for more complex shapes, can be estimated using the Area Calculator. analyze the effect of various factors including live load, sustained load, span length, long-term multiplier, etc on the minimum thickness requirements of a two-way slab, unsupported by drop panels. When calculating haunch for the beam along the phase line, use the dead load deflection from the initial slab weight. SLAB DESIGN Reading Assignment Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI318-02 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13. In two-way slabs shorter direction strip carry greater %age of load. For single box culverts with typical span lengths, one design truck rear axle patch will likely. 0 psf Insulation = 2. Now each square meter of slab would have a self weight of 0. The load is transferred directly from slab to column in the flat slab. Flat slabs design is appropriate for most floor situations and is also suitable for irregular column layouts, curved floor shapes, ramps etc. Fuel Adjustment Charges (FAC) Tax on Sale (TOS) @ Ps/U. With some limitations, reinforcement for slabs can be sized using the Subgrade Drag Theory in order to increase the spacing of control or construction joints. contact area = 70. To obtain a wall or ceiling assembly R-value you must add the r-values of the individual components together. Example: One-Way System. 2' * 13' (for a typical bay) = 208 ft^2 R 1= 1. Cantilever Slab Design Calculation & Procedure Design of cantilever slab to Eurocode 2 Span of slab 1. ) away from the beam edge. Precast structure under live load: Normally, the design must include an allowance for a live load (LL) at the surface. Design concrete slabs and timber decks using a one foot wide longitudinal strip. 3 b2 = b3 = 4. BubbleDeck is a true biaxial slab and behaves like a solib slab, both in aelastic and plastic modes. Explore other calculators related to housing or building, as well as hundreds of other calculators addressing finance, math, fitness, health, and more. 5 psf Roof Framing = 3. LIVE LOAD Let us calculate the Live load on structureWe have to refer the International building codes for live loadLive load is as per the usage of the building. Now, assume Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. These are located at 1. Input length, width and depth of the area. This paper presents the latest developments of a simple method used to determine the ultimate load of two-way simply supported reinforced concrete slabs. Two-way slab (l y /l x < 2) Long span: p = nl x /2(1. In two way slab, distribution bars are provided in both sides of slab. resistance); live load 3+1 kN/m2, dead load 1. Calculations are made as for solid slabs. 5 psf 1/2" Drywall Ceiling = 2. Basis Of Floor Slab on Grade Design. Design a warehouse floor slab for an interior wall load of 1400 plf, stationary live load of 1200 plf, exterior wall load of 1000 plf and an average daily volume of 25-15 kip forklift trucks per day using 4000 psi concrete and a modulus of subgrade reaction, k = 150 pci. Permanent building components. First, we will determine the refrigeration load required to cool down the waters from the ambient temperature to zero degrees centigrade. While the treatment of deflection in CP110 has been generally welcomed as an improvement on the rather rough-and-ready span/depth rules in CP114, it is very cumbersome to apply in practice. The slab construction loads with various reshoring schemes are defined by a simplified method, and the practical calculation of slab deflections with considering construction sequences and. 0 ps Insulation = 1. Structural Calculations See Appendix A-100 for detailed wind load calculations. Seismic Loads for Parking Garage: [Conc Slab, PT Slab] Load Summary 307 [PT Slab ] Tendon Layout 308 [Conc Slab, PT Slab] Reinforcing Layout 309 [Conc Slab, PT Slab] Deflection Summary 310. Slab – Punching Shear (available in Reinforced Concrete FREE) – allows to calculate load barring capability of slab for punching shear, additionally in Reinforced Concrete PRO you may choose column section Rectangular / Circular and calculate Column Drop for slab. The load of slab will be distributed to beam in 45 degree dispersion. Compressive strength in pounds per square inch or kilo Pascals 2. Input should include design load, support conditions, allowable deflections, Ply form type and thickness, and whether face grain is across supports or. Analyzing Distributed Loads •A distributed load can be equated with a concentrated load applied at a specific point along the bar. away from the beam centerline, which would be approxi-mately the slab depth (6. Beal BSc(Eng) CEng MICE, R. Main bars and distribution bars are provided in the One-way slab. 5 psf 1/2" Drywall Ceiling = 2. Deck Deflection: a. To use the Concrete Slab Calculator, simply enter the width, length, and thickness of your pour. All moment-resisting frames are located at the perimeter of the building. Required entries are for depth, length and width of the foundation or footing forms. Negative moment at continues edge = 0. Slabs equally reinforced in two normal directions, which fail in a fan mechanism under concentrated load, have been studied and ultimate bearing capacity for this kind of slab has been presented. ), h s and h a are the slab and asphalt layer thickness (7 and 8 in. If the slab is unpropped during construction, the decking alone resists the selfweight of the wet concrete and construction loads. Go to build your own roof truss for continuation of the analysis. 70 psi Concrete Flexural Strength F = 600. Calculate the safe bearing capacity of soil taking factor of safety as 2. contact area = 70. If a slab is supported on all the four sides but the ratio of longer span (l) to shorten span (b) is greater than 2, then the slab will be considered as one way slab. This totals. The dead load includes own weight of the slab in. This is a two way slab. 00 2 Columns None 5,000 psi 3/4” N/A2 N/A See section 2. Table of Contents. Calculate Volume of Square Slab Calculator Use. Truck Loads consist of P1, P2 and P3 axle loads, and wllu uniform load per lane. See details for 9120 205th Avenue NW, Nowthen, MN, 55330, Single Family, 4 bed, 4 bath, 3,328 sq ft, $479,900, MLS 5561059. 6*LL where DL= Total dead load (i. 225+1+2 kN/m2. 90 • For tension, fracture in net section φu = 0. View 60456903-Load-Distribution-of-Slab-to-Beams from CIV 1254 at National Institute of Technology, Silchar. Heat loss from slab-on- grade foundations is a function of the slab perimeter rather than the floor area. L1084 - 32 Abingdon Villas Page 35 of 70 Pringuer-James Consulting Engineers Ltd. Determine whether the slab geometry and loading allow the use of the direct design method as listed in DDM. txt) or read online for free. ACI design factors for calculating shear and moment in slab Limitation. This paper presents the latest developments of a simple method used to determine the ultimate load of two-way simply supported reinforced concrete slabs. For moment and for determining the distribution steel, put the load in the center of the span. First, we will determine the refrigeration load required to cool down the waters from the ambient temperature to zero degrees centigrade. This bears the load passing over it and transmits the forces caused by the same to the substructures. Divide this amount by 27 (there are 27 cubic feet in a cubic yard) to determine the volume of the slab in cubic yards. When calculating haunch for the beam along the phase line, use the dead load deflection from the initial slab weight. road construction estimating EXCEL spreadsheet. Design post-tensioned and conventional systems Design elevated concrete slabs with or without post-tensioning. Slab – Punching Shear (available in Reinforced Concrete FREE) – allows to calculate load barring capability of slab for punching shear, additionally in Reinforced Concrete PRO you may choose column section Rectangular / Circular and calculate Column Drop for slab. 876s ( kh / E ) ^ 0. Fuel Adjustment Charges (FAC) Tax on Sale (TOS) @ Ps/U. 2 Dead Load Calculation. Divide the floor into slabs no more than 110 ft by 110 ft. The Dead Load (DL) and Imposed Load (IL) is a variable. To calculate the amount of fill needed, stretch a string across the top of the forms and measure down to the ground. For example, if two disks have the same mass but one has all the mass around the rim and the other is solid, then the disks would […]. For example, tunnel constructed for a highway is design for external loads which is applied from the rock cover or any other overburden material. Load Versus Span Calculator. 5 - Compute Dead Load Effects. 4- Total Load of the slab (Dead load + Live load + Self-weight). It is very rarely used today for large buildings, but smaller residential-scale structures are being built. Width of ribs (bw) = 0. The discussed calculations involve equations that represent load Reactions. The slab must be supported by longitudinal girders or stringers with the main slab reinforcement placed perpendicular to the girders or for skews less than or equal to 20º. earth-engineers. So we need to calculate the quantity to tell the contractor. Pro Advanced – Adds faster, more advanced and complex analysis. Calculating the subtotal for the floor, ceiling, walls, footing, and slab: Solution for #5: The total dead load of the structure can be found by adding the two above subtotals: 347,233 lbs Solution for #6: To determine if the dead load (structure weight) from the house is sufficient to. Load calculation on column, Beam & Slab: For Beam: We adopt the same method of calculations for beam also. The following tools estimate the area of a roof, as well as the amount of materials necessary to construct a roof of a given area. The crack development for 3D visualization just before the collapse can be seen in Fig. SLAB DESIGN Reading Assignment Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI318-02 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13. See the following example: Calculating Assembly Wall R-Value*. Types of loads on the column 1- Self-weight of. How to calculate the load bearing capacity of RCC slab? Load bearing capacity, RCC slab. 0 psf Insulation = 2. Span/depth ratios for concrete beams and slabs. Volume of Concrete = 0. The composite modulus calculation is provided as an excel spreadsheet report. SETTLEMENT UNDER A SLAB RIGID INCLUSIONS Differences in Design Methodology between Granular & Grouted Inclusions 4 Main Components that interact with each other :-The structure / slab-The Load Transfer Platform-The rigid inclusion-The surrounding soils The design of a rigid inclusion solution must incorporate all components. The loads on building, may be a residential or any type of structure, are mainly classified into vertical and horizontal loads. Calculation for Beam Load For Floor Beam Load from slab: Thickness of the slab = 7 inch Length of the pertition wall= 15 ft Self weight = 87. The foundations should generally be located on a layer of soil or rock with good bearing characteristics. 12th ICSGE 10-12 Dec. *Average is $115 per yd 3, although your price will vary based on the type of concrete, vendor, and. 962 k/ft 1. Use k = 200 pci for calculation of the radius of relative stiffness (l). 125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN. The permanent load is calculated along the slope length of the stairs but the variable load is based on the plan area. Tariff effective from. I have a excel sheet where i need to calculate based on numbers in a slab, for instance: 1-10 users @ $1 11-20 users @ $0. Wood tension element capacity Calculator: Calculates capacity of a wood tension element based on allowable tension on net area (reduced by bolt holes) and, if desired, row and group tear-out. The slab load capacity ranged between 289 and 380 kN. Titanite Slab is a type of upgrade material in Dark Souls 2. Calculator™ "Excellent Free Online Calculators for Personal and Business use. Note - We need to calculate the Typical L's for the 1 st half only, for the 2 nd half we will multiply it by 2 excluding the main bar. 00 (self-weight) + 4. org / ACCA ACCA Air Conditioning Contractors of America, www. A one foot thick wall is initially assumed here, verify later in calculation. APPENDIX 1: Gravity Load Calculations SELF WEIGHT: Slab: 150psf * 8"thick slab / 12" per foot = 100psf ROOF LIVE LOAD: A t= 16. If you can get 60' long bars the total length of your slab can be 60'. The calculation of live loads has to be done by taking properties of the material & the dimensions of the element. Culvert Manual CM 3. Now each square meter of slab would have a self weight of 0. It allows to reinforce +9 fire weapons to +10 and +4 chaos weapons to +5. Enter the depth, width, and length to calculate the amount of cubic yards needed for your concrete slab. It assumed in this calculator that they are the same. (4) (i) Calculate w d - total dead load including self wt. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE CONCRETE SLAB ON METAL DECK Assignment #7 Select a Vulcraft composite deck to support 150 psf service live load on a 10 ft clear span. SS-EN ISO 13370:2007. Note that, the vertex angle of the triangular slabs is from 30 degree to 90 degree. Detailed calculations for determination of flexural and shear capacity according to AASHTO LRFD, 3rd Edition, 2004. Sn1s and V 'S for slab on grade were calculated for three slablwall configurations to account for difperent wall/slab junctions (see Table 1) , namely, 1. New Income Tax Slab 2020-21, Income Tax Slab Old vs New: A new income tax regime has been announced by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman. These load factors are applied in the load combination equations and vary in magnitude according to the load type. Dead Load - Under this category all the load of the dead or non-moving/stationary/fixed elements of the building are considered such as dead weight of walls, weight of roof/floor finishes, self weight of structural members such as; beams, coloumns, Footings & RCC slabs etc. Please note that SOME of these calculators use the section modulus of. Write your answer as the total load in Step 3 applied to the point you determined in Step 2. After the concrete is poured the slab should be left undisturbed for long enough (approximately 3 days) for the concrete to gain strength to minimise the risk of. Long Term-Deflection in slabs/beams is the deflection or the deformation that occurs over time due to shrinkage and temperature. There are many forms of reinforcing and this affects overall load capacity as well. The 15,000 pounds given above obviously does not include the weight of the footing itself so we need to calculate the weight of the concrete and add it to the total load of 15,000 lbs. Re: Calculating the Load Bearing Capacity of Concrete Floors 12/04/2009 7:28 AM There isn't any one formula, the selection of which one depends on how the slab is supported, where the rebar is placed, the type and placement of loads, etc. Load cell used to measure the impulse loading. On the right is the slab formwork for a suspended concrete slab to a multi story building, but this system of concrete formwork could just as easily be used on an owner builder house. Construction Loading in High-Rise Buildings 8-3 and Kabaila obtained an absolute maximum load ratio of 2. The slab is propped at the centre during construction stage. The given concrete slab calculator is a perfect tool to estimate the amount of materials needed, in particular, it can be used to calculate: the quantity of construction materials like gravel chippings, sand, cement, and required for the mortar;. of different categorized manpower required to perform a job and their daily wages. 7E permanent. With consideration of the combined work of slabs interconnected by reinforcement and absorbing the wave uplife pressure the thickness of the slabs is less than in the calculation for the one most loaded slab (36 and 45 cm), i. 3 The slab is designed based on 1-foot strips, therefore the live load most be distributed to these strips. 5m Variable load 4kN/mm2 Slab thickness 175mm Fck 25N/mm2 fyk 500N/mm2 Cover to the reinforcements 25mm Office building Slab loading. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen Contact information Address: Joint Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, TP 480, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy. The calculated results are summarized in Table 4 and compared with experimental results in Figure 20. 00 3 Slabs on grade Foundation walls Freeze/Thaw, Deicing Chemicals, Sulfate (severe) 4,500 psi 1-1/2” 5-1/2 %3 0. This course will addresses the following foundation types: • crawl space;. Please note that SOME of these calculators use the section modulus of. Its necessary to check the slab deflection for all load cases both for short and long term basis. The load acting on the each level will create stresses in all the members of the scaffolding and thus it all the case considered for analysis. The result is the volume of the slab in cubic feet. software can be used. Plate Girder Splice. Calculate self weight of the concrete slabs; 3. 3 d LL 3 – Calculate the long-term creep deflection of the structure due to sustained dead load and sustained. How to Calculate the Extra Bars along Slab Openings?. Define the horizontal dynamic load application. European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen Contact information Address: Joint Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, TP 480, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy. Note - We need to calculate the Typical L's for the 1 st half only, for the 2 nd half we will multiply it by 2 excluding the main bar. Calculate factored moment and shear force by considering the one-meter width of the slab. Table 1: Calculations Needed To Determine Center of Mass The building given in Figure 1 is assumed to have the following characteristics: • The roof diaphragm is a 4 inch thick concrete slab • The concrete walls are 12 feet tall and 6 inches thick • For the purposes of the example assume that the calculated seismic coeﬃcient is, C s = 0. So following the above discussion, we will denote it as w LL,data , and write: Eq. The span between the side block walls is 39-1/2" and the walls of the oven dome are centered over the joint between the slab and the supporting walls. Floors - Ctr Wall Ld Thickness Calculate the required thickness of a concrete slab-on-grade floor to support a wall load at the center/interior or on a joint. Wheeling Charges @ Rs/U. Under load these two components act independently and a relative slip occurs at the interface if there is no connection between them. This guide covers the design of slabs-on-ground for loads from material stored directly on the slab, storage rack loads, and static and dynamic loads associated with equipment and vehicles. When a concentrated load acts on the slab, the slab deforms like a saucer. I need to calculate the vertical load capacity of a 5"-thk. Figure 2 shows the collapse. An extra credit assignment for my Statics class, this is my earliest example of good creative Excel work. Move up/down to post spacing, x = 66. First, only 3/4-in. Now, assume Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. That is, the concentrated post or wheel load is assumed to be well away from a "free" slab edge or corner. 2) Resistance factors, φ, for the strength limit state shall be taken as follows: • For flexure φf = 1. en: concrete slabs thickness. distribute the live load as a concentrated force distributed either over a load strip width crossing the span for burial depths less than two feet, or a square or rectangular shaped area on the top of a concrete slab for fills two feet and greater. (ii) Calculate -total live load and any other not fixed type of imposed load. Figure 7b, and input the result in cell Slab Thickness, t. When a slab is supported on all four sides and the ratio of long span to short span is equal or greater than two, it will be considered as one way slab. From general concrete to fine aggregates to specialised sands. 001* A t = 1. Terras – Effect of point loads on reinforced concrete slabs without transverse reinforcement 2 in order to calculate the longitudinal strain: Figure 2– Average strains on a cracked concrete element (adapted from [5]) To study the relation between the diagonal compression stress, !!, and the diagonal. Default is 50 psf which you can change. Allowable soil bearing capacity = 3000 psf. Compute tributary carriage length and then calculate the track load from the Track Loading Chart. 1- Self-weight of the column x Number of floors. Slab Formwork Design Load — Dead load plus live load per square foot of contact. This completes the check of the steel deck. View photos, details, map for 4256 HONEY ISLAND Drive Slidell LA. The Calculation. The Sagulator helps you design shelves by calculating shelf sag (deflection) given type of shelf material, shelf load, load distribution, dimensions, and method of attachment. Monolithic Foundation Slab and Footing Connection Calculation I have a task to design the connection between a monolithic continuous footing and a slab. It allows to reinforce +9 fire weapons to +10 and +4 chaos weapons to +5. In conventional slab-beam system, the load is transferred from slab to beam and ultimately beam to the column. 1 22 added a provision that no axle load in excess of 24,000 lbs should be considered in the design of floor slabs. View 48 photos of this 4 bed, 3+ bath, 3,328 Sq. The calculated results are summarized in Table 4 and compared with experimental results in Figure 20. Subtract the thickness of your slab. Type of Building The sample calculation is based on a two-story home with a 8-foot by 4 -foot footprint and a mean roof height of 6 feet above grade. One way slab is normally designed for gravity load only. For example, tunnel constructed for a highway is design for external loads which is applied from the rock cover or any other overburden material. As four goes into 12 three times, we can multiply 27 by three and get 81 square feet four inches thick. Flat slabs design is appropriate for most floor situations and is also suitable for irregular column layouts, curved floor shapes, ramps etc. The work flow is further enhanced by semi-automatic generation of reinforcement bending schedules by most of the concrete design modules. Live Load LRFD 3. Load Stress Example Calculations Example 1. Using the free eQUEST program with Chvac gives you a complete load calculation and energy analysis package. Then, you export a ready-to-open eQUEST project file from Chvac. Such calculations require a knowledge of the supporting beam or column dimensions A reasonable. The slab deflections will be calculated according to Eurocode 2. Required entries are for depth, length and width of the foundation or footing forms. The upper slab MUST now deflect more than the lower slab as the distance apart is reducing and therefore carries more load. Contours of D for beam and slab bridges, w = 51 Figure 2le. 6 when resisting the load when 8. The parameters x1 and x2 denote distance between axle loads, parameter xmax is used to locate the middle-axle's distance from the left support. Disclaimer: This calculator is not intended to be used for the design of actual structures. When a slab is supported on all four sides and the ratio of long span to short span is equal or greater than two, it will be considered as one way slab. Under load these two components act independently and a relative slip occurs at the interface if there is no connection between them. You can see the gun , the stretching method and how the prestressing force is determined. The total load for each tributary area is then divided by the area of each footing in order to determine the load psf imposed on the soil. , respectively), and γ c and γ a represent the concrete and asphalt. A thin topping slab completes the system. Pinned slab edges are graphically indicated with a salmon color, as opposed to the typical blue slab edge. σ max: Maximum stress developed in the slab by the forklift truck (vehicle axle load) - slab (pavement) - subgrade interaction. Types of loads on the column. There are several reasons to control deflection. The linear weight is itself equal to the product of the thickness, height and specific weight of the glass (depends on the type of glass, usually between 24-28 kN/m 3). Engineering Calculators Menu Engineering Analysis Menu. software can be used. Often those slabs have steel reinforcement. The steel deck is to be used on a three-span condition and shoring is not permitted. Factory floor load is 20 kN/m2. 2 DEAD LOAD CALCULATION Calculate the dead load of the bridge superstructure components for the controlling interior girder. (203 mm) thick if the hand buggies are to be used and the formwork weighs 10 lb/sq ft (48. The web thickness at 5 ft (1. 5 Psf Floor finish = 20 Psf Live load = 60 Psf Partition wall= 24. What can happen if the subject is neglected. Under the announced income tax regime, taxpayers will. Thus, an 16 cm normal weight slab would exert a dead load of 25 kN/m 3 x 0. Titanite Slab is a type of upgrade material in Dark Souls 2. Tributary Carriage Length (example) Figure 3 After the track line loads are calculated from the Track Loading Chart, the floor slab can be reviewed for strength and deflection. The high-load slab shoring system related EN 1065 class B-D-E are the right choice for the designer for draft and scientifical calculation with remarkable savin. 4 of ACI 318M-14. The shear at this location is used in the example for the design of reinforcing stirrups. For slabs spanning in both directions published tables and charts should be used to find bending moment and shear per unit width of slab. This option also allows the generation of a calculation model for overlapped slabs to directly lower the loads to the foundations. It then determines the total load from each tributary area based on the design load of your deck. How does this concrete calculator work? This is a house tool that can help you estimate the cement requirements for your construction project. In this example, a 3,000-pound vehicle accelerates from zero to 60 mph in 7. 5 lakh, 15 per cent, 20 per cent and 25 per cent on next Rs 2. How to calculate the load bearing capacity of RCC slab? Load bearing capacity, RCC slab. Types of Construction Loads on Composite Slabs and Calculation Composite slab is one of the most important of floor system that is used in the construction of multistory steel structures. Perimeter is the part of the foundation or slab nearest to the surface of the ground outside. The mechanics of how load is transferred through slabs is basic physics: the deflection of a slab is proportional to the total applied load on the slab – it needs to deflect in order to carry the load. 0 INTRODUCTION In conventional composite construction, concrete slabs rest over steel beams and are supported by them. Pinned slab edges are graphically indicated with a salmon color, as opposed to the typical blue slab edge. Input length, width and depth of the area. Hence the estimated long term deflection would be:. The slab construction loads with various reshoring schemes are defined by a simplified method, and the practical calculation of slab deflections with considering construction sequences and. For example, let's calculate how much concrete is needed for a 5-inch thick rectangular driveway, 60-feet long (length) and 18-feet wide (width). If anyone can disclose how the fancy software programs do this, I'd love to know. The amount of deck reinforcement given by this method is significantly less than those given by the LRFD traditional method or Standard LFD methods, and Figure 1 compares the deck. 5 lakh and Rs 5 lakh will pay 5 per cent tax. ACI 318-99. A good rule of thumb is take your calculation and add 4% to 10% to the total to account for waste, spillage, over-excavation, settlement, spreading of forms, loss of entrained air or any other changes in volume. This Technical Note reviews the levels of acceptable deflections and the currently available methods for their estimate. The 'Slab on Grade' worksheet assumes a structurally unreinforced slab, ACI-360'Type B', reinforced only for shrinkage and temperature. The original theory and equations by H. The steel deck is to be used on a three-span condition and shoring is not permitted. And we need to find the collapse mechanism in which the ultimate uniform load is minimized. Note that, the vertex angle of the triangular slabs is from 30 degree to 90 degree. Originally published February 1962. Show and label the ULS load distribution on the beam and all relevant dimensions A concrete slab, 300 mm thick, 5 m wide and 10 m long, is used to support a live load of 3 KN/m^2 on one half and 5. His analysis suggested that the current slab design (1914) underestimated the moments by 30 to 50%. 170 m,made of M20 grade of concrete? Then what should be the area load?. nt distribution, in a possible equilibrium system for the panel, (a) Hillerborg’s suggestion (b) Saether’s method Fig. Live Load = Dead Load Roof cover = 1/2" Plywood Shuttering = 1. View photos, details, map for 4256 HONEY ISLAND Drive Slidell LA. Load calculation on column, Beam & Slab: For Beam: We adopt the same method of calculations for beam also. The patented Aardwolf Slab Lifter is an accessory for lifting and moving slab-form loads. Load calculation. This value is based on the passiveness of the section concrete+steel. Thickened slab areas and the floor slab can be poured in one operation. ExcelCalcs is a community who share an interest in making calculations with MS Excel. Disclaimer: This calculator is not intended to be used for the design of actual structures. Light Duty (LD) - Safe Live Load Under 2000 lbs. remainder of the slab is cast, due to the added stiffness of the cured slab. However, tunnels carry water are design for both external and eternal loads. I have steel deck manufacturers' catalogs that provide load tables for the allowable vertical load capacity for their deck, but how did they arrive at the numbers?. Slab thickness in inches or milli meter. 77 per square foot, but can vary significantly with site conditions and options. predict and calculate. What can happen if the subject is neglected. Loads on a PCC slab will create both compressive and tensile stresses within the slab and any adjacent one (as long as load transfer efficiency is > 0). Columns made by other materials (e. For simply supported slab. Exceptional 3-level family home newly rebuilt from ground up. In this article, some of many other important loads are also explained. Calculation Sheet Checked by PU Date 08-08-00 Check the adequacy of the continuous composite profiled deck slab with spans of 3. 70 psi Concrete Flexural Strength F = 600. For a nominal four inch thick pour, I would divide the square footage of the total pour, by 81 to get the number of yards required. The ice slab is deposited over this concrete slab. Calculate the design load for the form of a floor slab 8 in. Spreadsheets can do basic calculations such as cost estimates, schedule and cost control, and markup estimation, as well as structural calculations of reactions, stresses, strains. In this post, we are going to explain how to calculate steel quantity for the slab? For b oth one way and two way slab with an example. 63 Note that roofs exceeding an angle of 30 degrees may reduce the ground snow load. Now, assume Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. There is something to meet every need. Extended Abstract R. Thus bending moments in the slab are created in the direction of the span and normal to it. Concrete formwork - Square plated screw jacks at bottom, nailed to timber sole plates. The New Tax Slab (Old Slab vs New Slab) The most important and I would say the most famous change that Budget 2020-21 brought, is the new slabs system. The dead load encompasses all loads that don’t change over time. 0 psf 7/8" Stucco = 10. The steel deck is to be used on a three-span condition and shoring is not permitted. Seismic Loads for Parking Garage: [Conc Slab, PT Slab] Load Summary 307 [PT Slab ] Tendon Layout 308 [Conc Slab, PT Slab] Reinforcing Layout 309 [Conc Slab, PT Slab] Deflection Summary 310. 6W effect, or 0. what is the allowable load what is the allowable load and span of a 3 1/2" concrete slab floor. So, we can calculate slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter. Floor slabs on grade should be analyzed for adequate structural live loads. Hence slab load = 6. Sn1s and V 'S for slab on grade were calculated for three slablwall configurations to account for difperent wall/slab junctions (see Table 1) , namely, 1. Monolithic Foundation Slab and Footing Connection Calculation I have a task to design the connection between a monolithic continuous footing and a slab. The losses are from the edges of the slab and insulation on these edges will significantly reduce the heat losses. 1 Simply supported square slab e slab with span L subjected to uniform load p as shown in Fig. Building width [m] Building length [m] Building area [m2] Building perimeter [m]. Types of loads on the column. Slabs are classified into 16 types. Three main factors for determining the weight load of your glass table top is glass thickness, the square footage of the glass and the distance between the structural support (eg. 500 kg/m2 is typical for office, storage space and similar. Structural Enterprise – The most popular structural applications in a single a cost-effective license. There are two approaches to the calculation of the ultimate load-carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete slab involving yield line theory. Note: For Better View, Please read this post in landscape mode if you are on the mobile device. Case 2: Wheel load a considerable distance from the edges of the slab. One-way and Two-way Slabs One-way slabs transfer the imposed loads in one direction only. Load Transfer From : Imposed Load (IL): Dead Load (DL): Standard Factor Of Safety (F. 00 (Figure 8. Calculate the loads acting on the slab. With some limitations, reinforcement for slabs can be sized using the Subgrade Drag Theory in order to increase the spacing of control or construction joints. bm = b2+ 2tc + 2tt tt = 0 in. Answer to There is a 5 kPa distributed load on the two slabs below. For simply supported slab. Dead load = D x 25 kN/m 2 ( Where D is thickness of slab in m). Total load is carried in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beam. It is composed. The loads are calculated per unit area (load/m 2). Load Transfer From : Imposed Load (IL): Dead Load (DL): Standard Factor Of Safety (F. After the load stage #6, the slab was unloaded and after 5 days was reloaded. Geometry Method •The magnitude of the resultant force is equivalent to the area under the curve of the distributed load 10 kN/m 1 m 3 m 2 m. Slabs equally reinforced in two normal directions, which fail in a fan mechanism under concentrated load, have been studied and ultimate bearing capacity for this kind of slab has been presented. 2x 1 where x = distance of load-from support closest to load I = effective span. Move to right to eff. Introduction to LRFD 1-8 Resistance Factors (Article 6. If the slab is unpropped during construction, the decking alone resists the selfweight of the wet concrete and construction loads. Waffle slabs: A two-way slab reinforced by ribs in two-dimensions. The calculations of S * 's and Vnls allow for spatial variations in soil thermal properties by assigning different soil conductivities above and below the foundation floor level. Slump – Slump is a measure of the consistency of the concrete. For a floor, this must consider the slab, as well as supporting girders, joists, etc (or foundation, soil, etc at ground level). LL lane = distributed lane load = 0. Calculations of Slab Thickness and Dead Load & live load for building - Free download as PDF File (. According to Egyptian Code, when the. Both this slab and the house slab should be at least 4 inches thick. The slab may be supported by walls or by reinforced concrete beams usually cast monolithically with the slab or by structural steel beams or by columns, or by the ground. The column heads or band beams are the same depth as the ribs. Slabs equally reinforced in two normal directions, which fail in a fan mechanism under concentrated load, have been studied and ultimate bearing capacity for this kind of slab has been presented. OF TWO-WAY SLABS BY GERALD C. Heat loss from slab-on- grade foundations is a function of the slab perimeter rather than the floor area. Concrete characteristics (EC2). 25 square feet (2 ½ x 2 ½ ft) is a load of 320 PSF. So, we can calculate slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter. Light Duty (LD) - Safe Live Load Under 2000 lbs. Metfloor 55 Slab Depth (mm) Concrete volume (m3/m2) 105: 0. FWD loading (a = 5. The structural system consists of load bearing walls and one-way slabs for gravity and lateral loads have been taken for analysis using ETABS. • self-weight of the beam • concrete slab • imposed load The beam is a 203SFB100 profile in bending about the strong axis. σ max: Maximum stress developed in the slab by the forklift truck (vehicle axle load) - slab (pavement) - subgrade interaction. Slabs are the flexural members of a building or any structure supported by the beams or directly on the columns*. Answer: SAFE checks punching shear twice, once for column punching through the drop panel, then once for drop-panel punching through the slab. Calculate the yards of concrete or how many pre-mixed bags of concrete are needed to pour a slab, patio, footing, column, or post fill-project, including circular slabs and patios. but i am sharing with you an excel sheet, which will make slab steel quantity calculation too easy for anyone who wants to know the exact quantity of steel required for his/her slab. ACI design factors for calculating shear and moment in slab Limitation. E-Mail [email protected] During the Cretaceous, the Indian plate moved towards Eurasia at the fastest rates ever recorded. Using an online calculator, enter the length and width of the concrete slab as well as the on-center spacing and edge clearance of the bars. Select either the Theoretical (required) reinforcement layout located in the RC slabs design or Design > Required reinforcement of RC slabs/walls - options > Calculations to evaluate the reinforcement area for plates or shells. RE: concentrated loads on elevated concrete floor slab paddingtongreen (Structural) 11 Mar 12 08:49 There is a theorem (I don't know if it is official or not but it is logical) that if you have a viable load path, even if it is not the one that the load would choose (the stiffest one), the viable path will support the load even if the choice. The following equation may be used to find allowable loads. 1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems with or without beams loaded only by gravity loads and having a fairly regular layout meeting the following conditions:. It is composed. 5*4 m and a depth of 0. 0 INTRODUCTION In conventional composite construction, concrete slabs rest over steel beams and are supported by them. Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. How to calculate area load? Offline Rupam Das Sun, Apr 2 2017 2:17 AM. Dead and live load. ACI 318-99. The load is transferred directly from slab to column in the flat slab. Distributed Loading. Calculator™ "Excellent Free Online Calculators for Personal and Business use. The losses are from the edges of the slab and insulation on these edges will significantly reduce the heat losses. Enter the length (m), width (m) and depth (mm) of the slabs. LL lane = distributed lane load = 0. The "Slab on Grade" worksheet assumes a structurally unreinforced slab, ACI-360″Type B", reinforced only for shrinkage and temperature. To use the Concrete Slab Calculator, simply enter the width, length, and thickness of your pour. For simply supported spans, this limit is generally found to be nearly 10 metres and for continuous or balanced cantilever type structures, this limit is 20 to 25 metres. The article explains right from the basics of load distribution over beams and moves into the core of the subject as it finally unfolds all the expressions required for the calculations of beam loads. Small volume concrete delivery in the Seattle, Washington area. Given: Column loads: Live load: 25 kips Dead load: 25 kips Uplift = 20 kips Factor of safety for uplift = 1. We are not suggesting you fill your hole with concrete (although some counties do). DESIGN CALCULATIONS – INSTA-FOOTING LOAD BEARING CAPACITIES ON CONCRETE SLAB January 14, 2017 Rev - Projection Name: Insta-Footing Design Calculations Owner: Insta-footing, LLC Prepared by: Richard Nolan, PE Nolan Engineering, PLLC 333 Kinglsey Road Burnt Hills, NY 12027 Reviewed by: Robert Mann, PE Date: 3/1/2017. However, since the example bridge does not have a wearing. An interior load condition is assumed for flexural analysis. The load due to both slab and asphalt layer self-weight can be expressed as follows: ω dsc aa = bh bh γγ+ (4) where b represents the slab unit strip (12 in. Design Step 5. 5 lakh each and 30 per cent on income above Rs 15 lakh. The composite modulus calculation is provided as an excel spreadsheet report. For any construction work, if beam load calculations are not accurately done can spell disaster to the entire structure. Two way restrained slab d=(L/30) to (L/32) c) Load on slab: The load on slab comprises of Dead load, floor finish and live load. Rectangular Beams and One-way Slabs Page 3 of 9 Design of Rectangular Beams and One-way Slabs (Continued) a = β1 c Where β1 = 0. 11 cubic yards. To obtained a live load per foot divide the lane load and truck loads by the effective width. 1 Introduction. 5 kN/m 2 is considered. There are columns on the footing that have lateral wind loads. Types of Construction Loads on Composite Slabs and Calculation Composite slab is one of the most important of floor system that is used in the construction of multistory steel structures. Red Titanite Slab Location. The live loads were calculated by multiplying the floor area by a load per square foot value (provided by Mitchell). L = floor finish load = 1 KN/m2. Using the free eQUEST program with Chvac gives you a complete load calculation and energy analysis package. Properly size equipment for load. Dead Load - Under this category all the load of the dead or non-moving/stationary/fixed elements of the building are considered such as dead weight of walls, weight of roof/floor finishes, self weight of structural members such as; beams, coloumns, Footings & RCC slabs etc. Well to make you perfect in Bar Bending Schedule for a slab, I am considering a One-way slab and two way slab as shown in the figure. 19 July 2019 E. When purchasing a glass slab for your table top, take into consideration the support system of your table as well as its intended use. This is a two way slab. 5 lakh and Rs 5 lakh will pay 5 per cent tax. The deck slab reinforcement given by the empirical method is a value which is dependent neither on the girder/web spacing nor on the applied dead and live load. The following equation may be used to find allowable loads. SIMPLE SPAN REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB BRIDGE INPUT: VERSION 6. The slab may be supported by walls or by reinforced concrete beams usually cast monolithically with the slab or by structural steel beams or by columns, or by the ground. The horizontal loads are the earthquake and the wind loads. If you can get 60' long bars the total length of your slab can be 60'. Floor Deck - Maximum Load. txt) or read online for free. It allows to reinforce +9 fire weapons to +10 and +4 chaos weapons to +5. Now each square meter of slab would have a self weight of 0. Often those slabs have steel reinforcement. This Technical Note reviews the levels of acceptable deflections and the currently available methods for their estimate. Metfloor Concrete Volume Calculator; Structural Roof Deck; Metfloor Concrete Volume Calculator. Its necessary to check the slab deflection for all load cases both for short and long term basis. 125 m) Farm building floors, Home basement floors : 4 inches (0. Shear Force = Vu = Wu×l / 2. Click here for Instructions. Slump – Slump is a measure of the consistency of the concrete. Waffle slabs tend to be deeper than the equivalent ribbed slab. Enter the width and length of your slab in metres. To calculate the load bearing capacity of RCC slab, certain assumptions to be considered. View 48 photos of this 4 bed, 3+ bath, 3,328 Sq. 60 cubic feet) or 2,130kg/cubic meters to obtain the weight in the result. Shrinkage and expansion. Floors - Ctr Wall Ld Thickness Calculate the required thickness of a concrete slab-on-grade floor to support a wall load at the center/interior or on a joint. Total Estimated Bill. distribute the live load as a concentrated force distributed either over a load strip width crossing the span for burial depths less than two feet, or a square or rectangular shaped area on the top of a concrete slab for fills two feet and greater. In addition to curling, environmental temperatures will cause PCC slabs to expand (when hot) and contract (when cool), which causes joint movement. of different categorized manpower required to perform a job and their daily wages. 4- Total Load of the slab (Dead load + Live load + Self-weight). The nature of this rapid acceleration, followed by a rapid slowdown and then succeeded by a second speedup, is puzzling to explain. The LRFD Specifications provide equations for live load distribution factors (LLDF) that result in equivalent strip widths, E, that are assumed to carry one lane of traffic. Terras – Effect of point loads on reinforced concrete slabs without transverse reinforcement 2 in order to calculate the longitudinal strain: Figure 2– Average strains on a cracked concrete element (adapted from [5]) To study the relation between the diagonal compression stress, !!, and the diagonal. 1) self weight of slab:- self weight of rcc slab is also known as dead load of slab it is immovable structure in building construction, so it is called as static loads and permanent load, so immovable structure made of RCC slab is self weight of slab. The distribution for shear is; be = b m. The losses are from the edges of the slab and insulation on these edges will significantly reduce the heat losses.